The department was established at the same time as the Institute in 1907. Throughout the hundred-year history of its existence, such prominent national scientists as K. Wegner, V. Chaklin, B. Babich, J. Dubrov, F. Eliashberg et al. About 1000 patients are treated annually in the department, with an average of 750 surgeries performed on all sections of the musculoskeletal system from the cervical spine to the foot. The main directions of the department are diagnostics and new methods of treatment of injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system, bone tumors, diseases of the cervical spine. High professionalism of the specialists of the unit is recognized by both patients, colleagues from Ukraine and abroad. Leading surgeons of the department have been trained in a number of world-renowned clinics in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, England, USA, Japan, etc .; supervise a number of regions of Ukraine and provide advisory assistance. The staff of the department are members of many domestic and international medical societies (AAOS, SICOT, EMSOS, ISOLS, ISMISS, etc.). Leading specialists of the department make presentations at scientific forums in Ukraine and abroad, and have been repeatedly awarded several prestigious international diplomas. The department trains students of the Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics of Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, as well as undergo specialized training of doctors from foreign countries.